THE II CYCLE: ELECTRO-CHEMICAL MACHINES. GERMANY, TOP PREDATOR NATION.
Minds:Youth: Energy---------- Maturity: Peaceful Mass-consume ------- Third Age: Weapon.
1867 ------ 1883 --------------- 1890 ----- crash 1929-1936 -------------- 1971:104 years.
Light bulb, Wired Telegraph, phone----Wireless Radio-----Hate Radio: Hitler: II W.W.:
In the graph, the II Kondratieff Cycle is based on chemical energy and electric information.
I Age: the discovery of chemical energy and electric information.
At the end of the XIX C. Germany, without a huge Empire to extend its railroads, dedicates all its efforts to the new electrochemical industries, discovering the oil and electric engine and all kind of chemical products. Therefore Germany will be the leader of the II Industrial R=evolution.
The 1850s and 60s, the 3rd cynical, declining age of railroads moved by the benefits of war, coincides with the age of discovery of chemical energy, dynamite and oil, used to fill kerosene lamps to illuminate the streets. During the overproduction crash of railroads, in 1859, in Pennsylvania, the first oil well is perforated, as oil is used for lamps and heating. In the Secession War, Rockefeller builds up his oil monopoly, creating the Exxon Empire, still the biggest company of the world. Meanwhile in Germany chemical industries take off. The discovery of anilines makes cheaper clothes dying, changing colors and fashions from the serious greys and long beards of the XIX C. to the bright colors and clean faces of the beginning of the XX century. Chemical drugs, coupled with the development of the germ theory by Pasteur, improve the health of the new man thanks to Bayer, BASF, ICI in Britain and Du Pont in America, with Germany as the unsurpassed leader. But as all dual fruits of the Tree of Science, chemical products are also weapons that kill. So chemical energy becomes a bomb with Alfred Nobel, who makes a fortune in the French-Prussian war with dynamite.
Meanwhile information machines that reached its chemical threshold during the steam age, advance now a step further with the discovery of electricity. It is the age of telegraphs that first are used to reproduce speculative money faster with the invention of the stock ticketer, which sends up through its wires stock-market quotes. Verbal news on the Secession War followed soon. But the information machine that astonishes the world will be the peaceful telephone invented in Germany by Reiss in 1861. But it will be Bell in America who turned it into a mass-consumption product. Informative machines are still huge, fixed by wires.
II Age: cars and radios. The happy new century.
But as technology evolves all machines become smaller. In Germany oil is applied to a machine body smaller than the train, the electrochemical mobile car, no longer dependant on rail tracks. Otto in 1876 discovers the gas engine and the gasoline engine in 1885.
Around 1893, 36 years after the first oil well opened in Titusville, the diesel engine turns the first helix of a boat and gasoline moves the first engine of a car, closing the I age of electrochemical machines. The precision of the cycle is remarkable. The consumption, transportation age of chemical energy, an age of peace and prosperity begins. America and Germany surpass all other nations in the production of automobiles. Germany is the pioneer. America, because of its immense Market, becomes the great re=producer. Daimler and Benz put together Mercedes that makes the first gasoline automobile and is still the biggest car company in Europe. In America Ford becomes the most powerful industrialist. His lobbyist power is so enormous that Ford who is abstemious, is able to amend the Constitution and imposes the dry law. In the zenith of their power, Rockefeller, the oil Mogul, Ford, the car producer, Carnegie who makes the steel for those cars and their banker Morgan that absorbs the speculative money of the entire nation to the glory of the machine, replace railroad barons as the owners of America. They control together 20% of US GNP and lunch in the house of Morgan in 5th avenue. In Germany the Deutsche Bank finances Mercedes and it is still today its biggest shareholder, while the Krupp-Thyssen group make the steel and the weapons.
Those titans change the fate of countries, since their lobbies dominate their government’s policies, directed now to make a world to the image and resemblance of the car. In 1907, the Ford T initiates its mass production. In that decade the car surpasses the railroad as the main industrial machine. During that XX c. governments will invest massively in the building of highways, as they did in the XIX century in railroads. Again it is Germany who initiates the process with Hitler. Meanwhile Electrical machines became wireless, when Marconi invents the electric radio that will replace the chemical press at the beginning of the XX C. as the fundamental machine of mass media information. Hitler used it to provoke hate during the 3rd age of the cycle.
III Age: the mini-crisis of 1913 and the 1914 World War. The car becomes a weapon.
In 1913 the stock market suffers its first mini-crash that precedes the 1929 II Kondratieff crack (nt.5), due to overproduction of luxury cars, steel and oil… as workers still have limited consumption power and cannot buy the hyper-expensive Cadillacs of that age. Some data for US production: Between 1904 and 1910 the production of household, electric appliances multiplies by seven in volume. Between 1910 and 1914 there is only a 10% of growth. Steel production also falls during that year 1913 from an index 100 to 80 in 1914. It is an impressive crash. But the following year the world enters the Great European War and those steel inventories are spent making weapons. Production rises elsewhere in the world. Was the economic crisis the real cause of war? In any case, the 1913 economical crisis made it profitable. Germans, lead by its ‘warrior politician’, William, the German Emperor, already wanted to go to war in 1910, when a political crisis, due to African colonization, awaked his longing for a colonial empire. But Jewish-German banks, on top of the consumption era, without economic crisis refused to pay for it. However, in 1914 the Emperor asked again and the banks in crisis signed a blank check. Krupp made the cannons and the young people of Europe were consumed by them. Antisemitism raged across the continent…
In I W.W. the chemical moguls that produced coloured clothes in Germany switched to produce yperite and sarin gas that killed hundreds of thousands of ‘unknown soldiers’. The French responded with chlorine. But Military Chemistry proved much more lethal than railroads’ steam. In I World War Germans decorated their trains with a motto ‘Paris in 3 weeks’. 3 years and ten million corpses later, Rolls Royce made tanks for the English and the new weapon broke the front in Ardennes. So finally the trains arrived… to Berlin. But the so-called Great War was in fact the smallest. Since the great one would arrive after the Great Crash of 1929. Then as today happens with neofascist America, German Nazis begun with a series of small ‘splendid little wars’ against weak countries to come out of the 29 economical crisis, turning the III Reich into a factory of weapons. Then, as it happens today in America, Gestapo’s agents started to control the ‘good German people’ to avoid the infiltration of communist and Jews. America has created a new ministry of Home Land Security to spy its citizens... It is already after the defence ministry the one with the biggest budget.
In the 30s radios that offered music in the 20s switched to military speeches as today TVs switch from 90s sitcoms to terrorist movies and star and stripe memorials. Japan and Germany mutated their peaceful boats, zeppelins and cars into destroyers, bombers and tanks. Boeing switches today production and 70% of its budget now goes to military planes and robotic weapons. Germans tried the new machines of death killing Spanish, people from an old verbal, non-technological culture that acted as guinea pigs, consumed by those weapons. Poland tested next the conversion of peaceful German chemical transport machines into Pantzers and Stukas. But the world said enough to Baroque Germany and II World war broke. Unfortunately when II W.W. ended those economical and technological causes were forgotten. So warfare and military production could kept growing with the excuse of a new ‘Cold War’ against the socialist Russian culture, now with a new type of machines, electronic machines, lead by the winner of II W.W., America.
The 3 generations of German Power.
The 3 generations of German national power will be again the discoverers, reproducers and weapon producers of those electro-chemical industries:
Founders, reproductive Maturity, Imperialism and decay.
Bayer, Bismark, Benz, Siemens, Lasalle, William, Goring, Hitler
The Founding fathers: Modern Germany was born during the railroad wars, from 1863 to 1871, when Moltke used railways to move faster his troops in the Austrian, Danish and Prussian-French wars. The use of the first chemical weapons, breech-loading guns against Austria and dynamite against France, decided those wars. After its victory, Prussia becomes the heart of a new Germany, no longer rural, made of multiple cultures, but industrial and racially pure, based in the traditions of the protestant religions of chosen of Go(l)d. In Versailles, in 1871, a defeated France recognizes the new German Empire. Germany’s II Cycle is directed by a group of determined leaders, inventors and industry captains, forged in those Unification wars that create in the Northern Rhine region a huge iron and steel industry. In politics it is the young age of Bismark that isolates England, now in its cynical, colonial age, with his pacifism, lack of territorial greed and sense of International justice. The Founding Fathers of the American cycle will also be known by their magnanimity after II WW. Since youth is always an idealistic age.
The Re=Productive generation: Unlike England, a parliamentary society, where industrialists form oligarchies that always choose the best man to lead the govern, Germany was politically into the hands of Prussian aristocrats, whose spiritual decadence came from very old. So Germany mismanaged its political and industrial capital in its mature generation, without empire and markets for its excess of industrial re=production. Soon Germany swung from excessive pacifism to an extreme military arrogance that scared its neighbours, France and Russia, who returned to their alliance with old England.
- The decadent generation: So finally it arrives the violent, cynical generation that transforms Germany and its electro-chemical energy and transportation machines into mass-destruction weapons – mustard gas, tanks and Holocaust trains. It is the age of fascism, the Nazi age of Hitler, which is not an isolated fact of history but a parallel age to that of Colonial Europe in the XIX C. and neofascist America in the XXI C. The only difference were the colour of its victims, always deemed as inferior non-technological species: black Africans in the Imperial age of Britain; Slavs and Jews in the Nazi age; Palestinians and the 3rd world in the neofascist age of global capitalism. Indeed, the Nazi, German baroque is a warning to the present militarization of the economy and growing fascist treatment of the III World and the citizens within our countries, submitted to increasing vigilance, with the excuse of terrorism. While all the ‘victims’ of cars that go well beyond speed limits, air crashes of ‘free market’ cheap companies, labour accidents or the 7 million children that die each year by lack of health care are considered ‘needed collateral effects’ of the ‘progress of Free markets’ towards the techno-utopian future. Robots however are perfectly fed in the digital age.